Literature review about automated payment systems

RFID tags have proved to have excellent accuracy, and can be read at highway speeds. Using ecash and other modern cryptography methods, one could design systems that do not know where individuals are, but can still collect and enforce tolls.

Electronic toll collection

However, the expense of police patrols makes their use on a continuous basis impractical, such that the probability of being stopped is likely to be low enough as to be an insufficient deterrent[ citation needed ].

This, together with installation problems in the automated vehicle identification system, led to many customers receiving erroneous violation notices, and a violation system whose Literature review about automated payment systems income, after expenses, was negative, as well as customer dissatisfaction.

Some toll agencies offer amnesty periods, where toll violators can settle their outstanding debts without incurring penalties or being subject to litigation or prosecution. This allows customers to use the facility without any advance interaction with the toll agency.

This section does not cite any sources. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Electronic toll collection systems rely on four major components: Most toll facilities charge different rates for different types of vehicles, making it necessary to distinguish the vehicles passing through the toll facility.

Optical systems proved to have poor reading reliability, especially when faced with inclement weather and dirty vehicles. Transaction processing[ edit ] Transaction processing deals with maintaining customer accounts, posting toll transactions and customer payments to the accounts, and handling customer inquiries.

A physical barrier, such as a gate arm, ensures that all vehicles passing through the toll booth have paid a toll. Light-curtain laser profilers record the shape of the vehicle, which can help distinguish trucks and trailers.

Several methods can be used to deter toll violators. Many toll agencies also publicize a list of habitual toll violators through media outlets and newspapers.

The most notable of these is a truck tolling system in Germany.

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Electronic Road Pricing Gantry at North Bridge Road, Singapore The most revolutionary application of ETC is in the urban context of congested cities, allowing to charge tolls without vehicles having to slow down.

Automatic number plate recognitionwhile rarely used as the primary vehicle identification method, is more commonly used in violation enforcement. Privacy[ edit ] Electronic toll collection poses a threat to privacy because the systems record when specific motor vehicles pass toll stations.

This is low-cost, but limits user flexibility, in such cases as the automobile owner who occasionally tows a trailer. A few toll facilities cover a very wide area, making fixed toll gates impractical.

Use our secure solutions with ease, with client-managed functionality and multiple users Pricing: The major disadvantage is the cost of equipping each vehicle with a transponder, which can be a major start-up expense, if paid by the toll agency, or a strong customer deterrent, if paid by the customer.

More complex systems use a variety of sensors. The simplest method is to store the vehicle class in the customer record, and use the AVI data to look up the vehicle class. Inductive sensors embedded in the road surface can determine the gaps between vehicles, to provide basic information on the presence of a vehicle.

Here, a system of cameras captures images of vehicles passing through tolled areas, and the image of the number plate is extracted and used to identify the vehicle. Let us assist you to improve your collections by minimising the following: Some early AVI systems used barcodes affixed to each vehicle, to be read optically at the toll booth.

This makes manual review, with its greater accuracy over fully automated methods, practical. However, many jurisdictions require legislative action to permit this type of enforcement, as the number plate identifies only the vehicle, not its operator, and many traffic enforcement regulations require identifying the operator in order to issue an infraction.

However, barriers also force authorized customers, which are the vast majority of vehicles passing through, to slow to a near-stop at the toll gate, negating much of the speed and capacity benefits of electronic tolling.

Submit accurate information and details every time you transact, reducing admin burdens and increasing collections Integration: Automated vehicle classification[ edit ] Automated vehicle classification is closely related to automated vehicle identification AVI.

Take advantage of fully automated solutions, reducing workload, limiting human intervention and keeping you well informed User-friendly: In addition, in most jurisdictions, the legal framework is already in place for punishing toll evasion as a traffic infraction.

Treadles permit counting the number of axles as a vehicle passes over them and, with offset-treadle installations, also detect dual-tire vehicles. In some cases, this division of functions has resulted in difficulties.

The prepaid system is more common, as the small amounts of most tolls makes pursuit of uncollected debts uneconomic. Achieve full integration with your internal systems to minimise human intervention and associated errors Flexibility: Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Modelling Payments Systems: A Review of the Literature Jonathan Chiu and Alexandra Lai tem (LVTS) and the Automated Clearing Settle-ment System (ACSS) exhibit a high degree of tiering.

At the top of the hierarchy are settle- Systems: A Review of the Literature.” Bank of Canada Working Paper No. Adoption of e-Payment Systems: A Review of Literature define e-payment as payments made via the automated clearing house, commercial card systems payment systems and their future.

Best Practices in Permitting of Oversize and Overweight Vehicles: Final Report CHAPTER 9: LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS. The survey of State oversize/overweight (OS/OW) automated permitting systems identified functionalities common to all or most States, as shown in Table mi-centre.com States include permanent and temporary route restrictions in their.

Practices for Public Transportation: Review of the Literature California PATH Working Paper identification systems, automated passenger counter systems, and transit signal priority systems.

e.g., with the use of automated vehicle location and electronic fare payment systems, and so studying the benefits from these policies is linked to.

Automation of literature reviews

Payment transactions, instruments, and systems: A survey Diana Hancock a,*, David B. Humphrey b a Federal Reserve System, Board of Governors, Mail StopWashington, DCUSA b Florida State University, Tallahassee, FLUSA Abstract The payments literature ranges from theoretical general equilibrium.

A review of credit card literature: perspectives from consumers Sumit Agarwal Low Tuck Kwong Professor, Departments of Economics, Finance and Real Estate though banks utilize automated pre-screening systems to psychologically tethered by the postulated levels of minimum payment.

A number of studies.

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Literature review about automated payment systems
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